The results of the researchers with the use of steel slag in agriculture have demonstrated that the proper application of these residues brings benefits on the chemical attributes of the soil, such as increase of pH in acidic soils; increase in the nutrient content of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium; and increase in the content of the beneficial element silicon [6, 11, 12, 13, 14]; these aspects contribute to greater crop production. Slag-based fertilizers applied in Si-deficient paddy soil improved rice growth, productivity, and brown spot resistance [39]. Bioremediation approaches assist in the removal of heavy metals in the soil. removal and replacement, pre compression, vertical drains and soil reinforcement. 95 . To quickly correct a lowlH or acid soil problem, a finer graded agricultural slag material should be used. S. OIL REPLACEMENT . Si may also influence the uptake and translocation of various macro- and micronutrients and increase plant tolerance to excess of Mn and Fe [37] and Zn, Al, and Cd [38]. Heavy metal contents in the slags shown in Table 1 agree with the values which are considered tolerable for application to the soil [10]. Available from: Post-Consumer Waste Recycling and Optimal Production, Steel slag modifying soil chemical attributes, Department of Soil and Environmental Resources, College of Agronomic Sciences, São Paulo State University, Brazil, Paulista Agency Agribusiness Technology Regional Midwest Pole, Brazil, Paulista Agency Agribusiness Technology, Regional Pole Midwest, Brazil, Federal Institute of Techonology North of Minas Gerais, Januária, Brazil. Chemical and physical characterization of different slags. India imported 5.5 million tonne urea, 4.4 million tonne DAP and 3.7 million tonnes of potash in 2016-17. This leads to reduction of landfills reserved for However, ladle steel slag, resulting from further refining, is quite different from steel slag [5]. How-ever, fertilizers and soil amendments represent an ecofriendly appli-cation wherein the advantageous chemical properties of steelmaking slag can be utilized to promote the growth of plants and increase the yield of agricultural products. soil, in order to evaluate possible harmful effects after slag application for agricultural purposes and to avoid their possible negative environmental impacts, as well as the use of steel slags for metal stabilisation in contaminated soils. The steel slag is used as a secondary cementitious binder, or aggregates for road … Steelmaking slag is officially speci- Steel slag may now be used as fertiliser for soil, Alphonso — the King of mangoes — to arrive late in markets this year, India likely to export 10 MT of non-Basmati rice in 2020-21 season, Sugar production up 42% in Oct-Dec at 110.22 lakh tonne: ISMA, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Share Price, This website follows the DNPA’s code of conduct. Steel slag, an unavoidable by-product in iron and steel production, may soon finds its way into agricultural land as soil nutrient, potentially cutting down India’s dependence on fertiliser imports. Thus, in this soil type, the acidity correction is of great importance in the adsorption of heavy metals [33]. The steel residues have very variable chemical composition due to the different processes to obtain them, becoming the important quantification of these elements in the soil and the crops after long-term residue application. The main restriction for the use of slags is the presence of heavy metals in its composition, which have to be evaluated before their soil application. The steel slag, ladle slag, and stainless steel slag (chemical characterization in Tables 1 and 2) applied as soil acidity correctives, at the dose necessary to raise the initial soil saturation to 70%, did not change the soil metals content evaluated at 12 and 23 months after the application of residues, and the Pb content decreased with the application of residues [7]. [] and Manso et al. Now the third-largest steelmaker in the world, India produces over 12 million tonnes of slag each year, but less than 20% of that is used in the cement industry while the remaining keeps piling up at the steel mills, while countries like USA and Japan use slags extensively (more than 70% of the produce) in areas such as housing and road construction, land and mine filling. The use of metallurgical solid wastes such as steel slag, in agricultural activity, has become very important to contribute to reducing the accumulation of such wastes in the environment and to increase crop production. We will use lab prototypes to assess the efficiency of steel slag in three potential field-scale phosphorus removal structure configurations, i.e., blind inlet, cartridge, and in-ditch slag dam for testing, and information obtained will be used to design field-scale installations for testing in the St. Joseph River Watershed (SJRW). Studies conducted by [19, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28] showed positive effects in soil acidity correction of surface application of steel slag compared to lime in no-tillage system, in tropical soil. Calcium silicate is 6.78 times more soluble than lime [2], so the use of steel slag in the no-tillage system can be an important alternative source for the process of soil acidity correction, because it may promote greater mobility of SiO32− anions in soil profile, ensuring faster soil acidity correction in deeper layers in relation to the lime. Developed countries like Japan, USA have taken lead in making fertilisers as slag silicate fertiliser, by-produced lime fertiliser, slag phosphate fertiliser or iron matter of special fertiliser using steel-making slag. Steel slag contains calcium, silicon, manganese, phosphate and iron. The application of steel slag in the soil increases the concentration of Si in the rice straw and promotes a higher yield of grains [40]. Contact our London head office or media team here. plants can be harvested and the con-taminated plant material disposed of safely. (PDF) Steel Slag Utilization — Overview in Indian Perspective | … The homogeneous application of the residue in the area and the adequate incorporation in the soil are also important aspects to be considered. Plant Nutr., 43 (2), 329-341, 1997 Dissolution of Slag Fertilizers in a Paddy Soil and Si Uptake by Rice Plant1 Naoto Kato2 and Naoto Owa3 Department of Farm Chemicals, National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, 305 Japan Received February 16, 1996; accepted in revised form June 26, 1996 “Productivity of such soils are low mainly due to the fact that in areas of high rainfall, soils become acidic as a result of their reaction as soluble basic salts like calcium, manganese and potash, are leached away by drainage water and insoluble acidic residues impaired biological activity, low base saturation and other acidity-induced soil plant nutritional and fertility problems,” the steel ministry wrote. Thus, steel slags can be considered as a sustainable alternative to agricultural practice. Soil stabilization can be accomplished by several methods. The no-tillage system is growing in these areas; however, one of the requirements for the success of this system is that there is no soil revolving, so the acidity corrective material should be applied to the surface without incorporation. Soil Sci. By Angélica Cristina Fernandes Deus, Rosemary Marques de Almeida Bertani, Guilherme Constantino Meirelles, Anelisa de Aquino Vidal Lacerda Soares, Lais Lorena Queiroz Moreira, Leonardo Theodoro Büll and Dirceu Maximino Fernandes, Submitted: May 11th 2018Reviewed: September 10th 2018Published: December 31st 2018, Home > Books > Recovery and Utilization of Metallurgical Solid Waste. The chemical evaluation of soil acidity correctives for agricultural purposes consists of the following determinations: neutralization power (NP) and calcium and magnesium contents [8]. In 2005, about 21 million tons of domestic iron and steel slag, valued at about $326 million, were consumed.15 Iron or blast furnace slag accounted for about 60% of the tonnage sold and was worth about $290 million; about 85% of this value was 2006 granulated slag. The supply of P and Si available in the soil for the potato crop, through the application of slag, increased the absorption of these nutrients by the plant, decreasing the lodging and increasing the height of plants and the production of tubers [17]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. It is also easier to spread, particularly in a damp condition. There are several types of steel slag, which present variation in chemical composition, physical composition, and solubility, and these variations occur mainly, due to the different processes and different raw materials used in the metallurgical industries. It is noted that some materials have a higher amount of micronutrients, for example, the steel slag with a higher presence of iron than the other materials and the blast furnace slag with higher content of manganese; the presence of higher micronutrients could be interesting to provide this element for the plant. LS showed the highest content of Si, while SS has a great amount of P2O5 (Table 1). In recent years, the use of slag as a calcareous material in acid soils has become very important. Steelmaking slag can be used for desulphurization due to its high CaO, especially free CaO content. We can also observe different concentrations of Si and P2O5 in the different slags. “The use of steel slag may be one of the most green solution which may avoid accumulation of large wastes in steel plants as well as help in treatment of soil for improving crop productivity at low cost,” the steel ministry said. Table 2 indicates the micronutrients and heavy metal contents in different slags [7]. These processes can occur in different types of furnaces such as basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace [5]. Nitrogen fertilization associated with steel slag also increases the dry mass production and the absorption of Si by the marandu grass [42]. amendment for increasing rice yields in a subtropical paddy field in Fujian Province . Developed countries like Japan, USA have taken lead in making fertilisers as slag silicate fertiliser, by-produced lime fertiliser, slag phosphate fertiliser or iron matter of special fertiliser using steel-making slag. The presence of elements in the composition of residues in nontoxic amounts and the soil pH increase contributed to avoid toxicity by heavy metals [32]. The hydroxyl (OH−) produced neutralizes the H+ of the soil solution and the phytotoxic Al3+, and, consequently, there is an increase in pH and a decrease in the concentration of the potential acidity (H + Al) [16]. Ag-Slag is more often coarser than limestone but should be adequate to maintain proper levels of soil pH. Like the old basic slag our grade of steel works slag called Super Slag Basic is principally a lime based material which has absorbed the oxides and trace elements arising from the refining of iron. © 2018 The Author(s). Slag application favors the increase of pH and the availability of nutrients such as Ca, Mg, and Si in the soil, which leads to the increase in the absorption of these elements by the plant, favoring the growth and yield of the crops. 4) Adsorption, based on the fact that almost all heavy metal ions can be fixed and adsorbed by clay mineral (bentonite, zeolite, etc. As a result of growing environmental awareness, iron and steel slag is highly regarded as a recycled material that can reduce impacts on the environment due to its resource-conservation and energy-saving effects. Especially in densely populated One type of plant used for this purpose is called Indian mustard. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. There are no conflicts of interest to declare. Sometimes soil amendments are added to the soil to increase the ability of the plants to take up the heavy met-als. In addition, steel slag has P in its composition, which may contribute to such results, as can be seen in Table 1. Ratio of Mixture. Tropical soils are characterized by being acid with excess of Al3+ that is a toxic element to plants because it limits the root development. of slag is produced in Gilan, which contains valuable materials and compounds. Soil replacement is one of the oldest and simplest methods 2.1. The amount of these components in each slag varies widely depending on raw materials, type of steel made, furnace conditions, and other aspects [4, 5]. Inside the furnaces, oxygen pressure is injected to remove impurities such as gaseous carbon monoxide, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and some iron as liquid oxides; these impurities combine with lime and dolomitic lime to form the steel slag. 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